technology guide

Bulk Metal® Foil Resistor Technology Guides and Resources
(Click the highlighted link to access the resource)


Resistors made with Bulk Metal® Foil are known for their unique combination of unmatched performance in all major technical areas:

Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR)
Voltage Coefficient of Resistance (VCR)
Power Coefficient of Resistance (PCR)
Thermal Stabilization


Thermal Electromotive Force (EMF)
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
Load Life Stability
Response Time

Click here for the TXCC Comprehensive Bulk Metal® Foil Technology Design Guide

Best Available Characteristics of Different Resistor Technologies


Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR)
-55°C to +125°C,
+25°C ref.

Initial Tolerance

End of Life Tolerance

Load Life Stability
at +70°C, Rated Power at 2000 Hours and then at 10,000 Hours


Thermal Stabilization

Noise (dB)

Bulk Metal® Foil

± 0.2 ppm/°C

From 0.001%

< 0.05%

0.0025% (25 ppm)
0.005% (50 ppm)


< 1 second


Thin Film

± 2 ppm/ °C

From 0.01%

< 0.4%

0.02% (200 ppm)
0.10% (1000 ppm)


> minutes


Thick Film

± 50 ppm/ °C

From 0.1%

< 5%

0.5% (5000 ppm)
2% (20,000 ppm)


> minutes



± 3 ppm/ °C

From 0.005%

< 0.5%

0.05% (500 ppm)
0.15% (1500 ppm)


> minutes



(a conceptual illustration of Bulk Metal® Foil)


and Chord Slopes (Statistically Combined)



Bulk Metal® Foil Technology Overview - Slide presentation providing a general overview of Bulk Metal® Foil technology.
Bulk Metal® Foil Technology Quick Guide / Overview - Quick guide to Bulk Metal® Foil technology.
Bulk Metal® Foil Design and Selection Guide - Expanded design and selection guide for Bulk Metal® Foil technology. The selector guide is divided into sections providing the resistance range, tolerance, TCR, rated power, power coefficient of resistance (PCR), and load life stability of various Bulk Metal® Foil products.

• 10 Technical Reasons (to choose Bulk Metal® Foil) - The key (amazing!) properties of Bulk Metal® Foil resistors (that exceed all other resistive technologies).
• Demonstration Videos - Various short videos demonstrating, in real world applications, the unique properties of Bulk Metal® Foil resistors.
• Training Modules - Various short training presentations.
• Facts At A Glance - Various tips, strategies, and technical presentations to help you maximize the performance of your products and designs using Bulk Metal® Foil resistors.
• Technical Notes - Various scientific and technical papers describing the challenges of real world analog circuitry, comparing the available technologies, and offering solutions to help you maximize the performance of your products and designs.

• Kelvin Connection - 4-wire/terminal connection for current sense applications.

More Resources:
(Click the highlighted link to access the resource)

• Dr. Felix Zandman - Inventor of PhotoStress® coatings and instruments, developer of Bulk Metal® Foil resistors and resistive current sensors, and founder of Vishay Intertechnology.
• Vishay Intertechnology, Inc. - Vishay Precision Group (VPG) operated as a part of Vishay Intertechnology until July 6, 2010, when it was spun off as an independent, publicly traded company.
• Vishay Precision Group - VPG is a designer, manufacturer and marketer of resistive foil technology products such as resistive sensors, weighing modules, and control systems for a wide variety of applications.
• Vishay Foil Resistors - Vishay Foil Resistors utilize award-winning Bulk Metal® Foil technology, allowing designers to significantly reduce circuit errors and greatly improve overall circuit performance.
• Introduction to Bulk Metal® Foil Technology and the Precision Resistor Industry - The electronics industry has evolved at a remarkable rate. Technological advances, miniaturization, and other factors have put pressure on designers to use discrete components that excel in performance and reliability.
• Extend Your Capabilities with Bulk Metal® Foil - Bulk Metal® Foil resistor products are used in the most demanding Space, Military, Metrological, ATE, and commercial applications from deep in the Earth to the farthest reaches of Space.
• Examples of Applications - Special applications in space, audio, test equipment, aviation, cryogenics, down hole, electron beam, industrial, laboratory & metrology, medical, military, precision instrumentation, and scales.
• Focus on Avionics, Military, and Space Applications - First introduced in 1962, Bulk Metal® Foil technology still out-performs all other resistor technologies for applications that require precision, stability, and reliability.

Coming Soon:
(More resourced being added here. Contact us for advance access.)

• Product Training Modules (coming soon)

• Other Application Examples (coming soon)
• Case Studies (coming soon)

• More Facts (coming soon)
• More Technical Notes (coming soon)
• Vishay Foil Resistors Product Change Notices (coming soon)

• Publications of Interest (coming soon)
• Related articles of interest (coming soon)
• Technical Notes (coming soon)

• News (coming soon)


TXCC Web Site Technology Guide (v20161116)